What is the Talmud? Is it the same as the Mishnah and the Gemara?
No, they are not the same, but understanding how they are different can be a bit confusing (more on this below).
These three ancient Jewish texts and others—some that date back to the beginning of the nation of Israel (see Gen 12)—are the foundation of modern Judaism and what binds Jewish people together today. And though Christianity is based on the narrative of the entire Bible, which includes the story of the Jewish people, their laws, and their religious traditions, most Christian’s understanding of Judaism and where Jewish laws and regulations referred to in the New Testament come from is limited at best.
Some of these sacred texts we’re familiar with, like the Torah (the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and Numbers—also called the Hebrew Bible), the Psalms, and the book of Esther. Others we might only recognize by name, like the Talmud.